Agreement between two reviewers was greater than 90%, with consensus reached on whether the articles met the inclusion or exclusion criteria. The researchers arrive at the conclusion that, given the availability of subsidized mammograms for poor Latina women, the main deterrent for improvement in the screening rate is lack of knowledge about cancer risks and treatment options. Among seven cohort studies, five of them found no association for vegetables and fruits consumption and colorectal cancer risk 88;96-100 , and two of them found an inverse association. Furthermore, new approaches have been developed that permit successful differential diagnosis of doubtful lesions and rapid identification of systemic metastases, and allow non-invasive characterisation of the biology of cancer tissue. A nested case-control study by Fall et al.
The consensus view is that women with nonprolifetarive fibrocystic changes are not at significantly increased risk of developing breast cancer Richie and Swanson, 2003; Dupont and Page, 1985; Fitzgibbons et al. The majority of cancer survivors have been treated with aggressive medical, radiation and surgical therapies administered either at a time when a patient's organs were still developing, leading to complications later in life, or when the patient was already suffering from underlying degenerative processes where the side effects of therapy represent insult over injury. Cancer Survivors in the United States: A Review of the Literature and a Call to Action. When knowledge of what the literature review paper entails has been offered to you, the desire to move forward and begin a paper you know will be of sound quality will result. Summarize individual studies or articles with as much or as little detail as each merits according to its comparative importance in the literature, remembering that space length denotes significance. The majority, 77%, had abnormalities in the Brief Symptom Inventory test that demonstrates severity scores for nine psychiatric symptoms. Chronic and Late-Effect Health Conditions in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer The treatment of childhood cancer has been associated with risk for developing several chronic conditions that appear later in life, including physical, psychological, cognitive abnormalities - some of which are severe and debilitating.
Poisson regression models estimated the relative risks of cervical cancer among immigrants, overall and stratified by age at migration and follow-up time, compared to Swedish-born women. Background: Breast cancer has been ranked as the 1st cancer in women in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The development and refinement of risk prediction models provide an epidemiologic basis for counseling women with a family history that does not appear related to a dominant susceptibility gene. Studies identified for this literature review are for the most part practically oriented, in the sense that they deal with topics that are of primary importance in detecting, treating, and preventing breast cancer. At least eight candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes have been identified.
The major concern is the reintroduction of malignant cells from the transplanted testicular tissue. More than 30 states have genetic non-discrimination laws. If you have one style, it is highly likely that readers will feel the smooth and easy flow of thought in addition to the smooth flow of your writing style. Three counties in western Washington State. In order to gain a better understanding of how current research may be addressing holes in the previous literature, we counted the number of times a specific area of minor focus was addressed within each of the studies see. In the metastatic disease phase, there is the further challenge of poor response rates or losses to follow-up because of severe illness or death; use of proxy respondents was not addressed in any of these studies. Ask yourself questions that intrigue you about your research.
Forty-seven percent of the cancers 26 of 55 were detected by mammography, 18% ten of 55 were incidental to benign disease, and 35% 19 of 55 were palpable or exhibited nipple abnormality. A recent international correlation study in 21 countries found a correlation coefficient of 0. The use of radiation therapy for patients with partial mastectomy and no lymph node dissection ranges from 24. We acknowledge the critical reviews of earlier versions of the manuscript by Drs. Quality of Life in Survivors Several studies have addressed quality of life issues in cancer survivors.
It is even a plus point if you choose sources that your professors know about. Patients and Methods: In this study, we performed a populationbased approach intersecting high-throughput genotype data from Iraqi populations with publicly available pharmacogenomics information to estimate the frequency of genotypes correlated with responsiveness to breast cancer treatment thus improving the clinical management of this disease in an efficient and cost effective way. On the other hand, a recently published large case-control study reported that vegetables, particularly dark green vegetables, reduced risk for colon cancer 102. Endocrine therapy reduces mitotic activity, indicating the estrogen and progesterone receptor content of breast cancers. The amount of damage inflicted by chemotherapy on spermatogenesis depends on the combination of drugs used and on the cumulative dose given for cancer treatment.
The researchers identify already known breast cancer risk factors including reproductive factors, exposure to pharmaceutical hormones, diet, ionizing radiation, socioeconomic status and posited the need to identify more factors. It appears that estrogens and progestogens act through and with proto-oncogenes and growth factors to affect breast cell proliferation and breast cancer etiology. Very few studies have addressed how caregiver problems and responsibilities change during different stages in a patient's illness trajectory. Of those remaining, 248 were retrieved in full text; we excluded 56 of this subset after reading the articles because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. This enormous variability is evidenced by our finding that no one instrument was used in more than 10% of the studies. Women with ductal carcinoma in situ have been treated both by lumpectomy and by lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy, but the benefit of combined therapy is uncertain.
Malignant tumours are commoner than benign ones. Yes, it can definitely be hard, especially if you have no clue how to do it and where to start. Valdivieso M, Kraut M, Lattin P. Risk factors for breast cancer--documented by intensive epidemiological investigations and viewed in the context of general principles of carcinogenesis--can be integrated to an etiologic model comprising 3 principal components: the likelihood of breast cancer occurrence depends on the number of mammary tissue-specific stem cells, which is determined in early life; all growth-enhancing mammotropic hormones affect the rate of expansion of initiated clones; and while a pregnancy stimulates the replication of already initiated cells, it conveys long-term protection through differentiation of mammary tissue-specific stem cells. Breast cancer is at least 100 times more common among women than among men. Several studies have described the correlation between amplification of c-myc oncogene and the course of breast cancer disease Borg et al. Risks for the offspring of cancer survivors Cancer treatment has the potential to cause mutations in germ cells that might increase the risk of growth disturbances and juvenile diseases, such as congenital malformations and cancer in the offspring of former cancer patients.
The attitudes of patients and the public have also changed. The most common forms of cancer, included in the studies, were breast, prostate, gastrointestinal, colon, and lung. Even when cures are possible, the costs of treatment may exceed an individual's or society's willingness to pay. Writing the introduction In the introduction, you should: Define or identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern, thus providing an appropriate context for reviewing the literature. Therefore, inability to stratify subjects by susceptibility may explain the lack of association of dietary factors with colorectal cancer in many epidemiological studies.