From this he went on to explore the influence of unconscious thought processes on various aspects of human behaviour and felt that amongst these forces the most powerful were the sexual desires in childhood which were repressed from the conscious mind. Despite the weaknesses of psychoanalysis, I believe that the many strengths of the theory are extremely significant. Six years earlier her fiancé had called off their wedding after the rehearsal dinner, and Emma had never recovered. The Ego and the mechanisms of defense. However, behavioral psychologists such as have criticized this method as being subjective and unscientific.
Fixation here can lead to perfectionism, a need to control or alternatively the opposite; messy and disorganised. Thus, for psychoanalysis, the unconscious is not passive reservoir of neutral data; rather it is a dynamic entity that engages us at the deepest level of our being. These all help to illustrate how psychoanalytic theory works. He stated that it strengthens these emotions by making them powerful organizers of the current events. One interesting facet of this approach is that it validates the importance of literature, as it is built on a literary key for the decoding.
Frequently, these intense emotional experiences provided Freud a valuable insight into the patient's problems. During the oral phase, the individual places emphasis on providing satisfaction for the needs of the mouth, which emerges as the first erotogenic zone Freud, 1949, p. Because psychoanalysis deals chiefly with unconscious motives and repressed emotions, common sense no longer seems to be applicable. The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique. It is only having a cathartic i.
The superego, which is another regulatory agent, protects the society from id. It focuses on three main phases to pursue literary criticism including the author his or her subjectivity , text and reader. Hence, these are the fundamental structures of the mind, and there is always a conflict between these three. The child begins to be jealous of the attention the mother gives to the father, which leads to repressed anger toward the father and a desire to possess the mother. Critics dispute many aspects of psychoanalysis including whether or not it is indeed a science; the value of the data upon which Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, based his theories; and the method and effectiveness of psychoanalytic treatment. These include: displacement, whereby one person or event is represented by another which is in some way linked or associated with it, perhaps because of a similar-sounding word, or by some form of symbolic substitution; and condensation, whereby a number of people, events, or meanings are combined and represented by a single image in the dream. Shapiro and Emde 1991 report that psychodynamic therapies have been successful only occasionally.
For Freud, the unconscious is the epicenter of repressed experiences, traumatic memories, fears, thoughts, sexual desires, and aggression. Freud believes that a male child is born with a desire to possess his mother. The dream work includes displacement, whereby one person or event is represented by another which is someway associated with it perhaps by a similar sounding word or by some form of symbolic substitutions and condensation whereby, a number of people, events and meanings are combined and represented by a single image in the dream. And if you had any doubts about the impact of Freud's theory, we're here to tell you that since psychoanalysis emerged on the scene, theorists have always been interested in what exceeds a person's conscious intentions. During analysis, a process that often takes many years, patients tell analysts both what they feel is important and what they consider to be unimportant. Psychoanalysis, originally intended as a theory to explain therapeutic or psychological concepts, explains the nature of human development and all aspects of mental functioning. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 2008.
Lacan treats the unconscious as a language; consequently, he views the dream not as Freud did that is, as a form and symptom of repression but rather as a form of discourse. The Oedipus complex is the most exemplary instance of this dynamic, a developmental structure Freud identified in literary sources in conjunction with his clinical work. The manifest symbols, images and language of the text should be able to carry us, through the reversing of the dream process, to the chaotic subconscious of the author. The criticisms of Freud's theory can be grouped into three general categories. Click here to using ink blots. Consideration of representability: This function complements the previous one and enables the dreamer to transfer the basic abstract and loose components of the dream into some meaningful visual images. And we believe this critical school can help you to become a better reader of texts, and of your everyday interactions.
Upon consideration, the author considers psychoanalysis to be a valuable theory despite its weaknesses because it is comprehensive, serendipitous, innovative, and has withstood the test of time. Use the material in the textbook and cite your sources. He defines the states of sleep to be a period of uproar and chaos during which the unconscious thoughts of the id attempt to force their way into consciousness Freud, 1949, p. The Ego The ego is the self that emerges after an on going and continual negotiation between the id and the superego. It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the author, that a literary work is a manifestation of the author's own neuroses.
And you do have to wonder if, when an author continually writes bad endings for motherly characters, they might have had an issue with their own mother. Treatment of the obsessive personality. The ego has the quality of being conscious and is responsible for controlling the demands of the id and of the instincts, becoming aware of stimuli, and serving as a link between the id and the external world. The doctor finally concludes that Albert's symptoms are probably psychologically based. The same also applies to literary texts in the light of Freudian psychoanalysis. Introduction: Some Empirical Approaches To Psychoanalysis. One may psychoanalyze a particular character within a literary work, but it is usually assumed that all such characters are projections of the author's psyche.
A final example of important Freudian terminology is the dream work, the process by which real events or desires are transformed into dream images. This approach assumes that the reduction of symptoms alone is relatively inconsequential as if the underlying conflict is not resolved, more neurotic symptoms will simply be substituted. It makes the reality of dreams seem natural. He believed that a dream has its distinctive language and it speaks in the form of metaphors, images, and symbols. And besides, its influence on later criticism makes it unavoidable. He put his patients on the couch and instructed them to free associate—like, blurt out words in reaction to words he told them—so that he could interpret what was really going on in their heads.
They are considered as the symbolic fulfillment of the wishes of the unconscious. The purpose of Eros is to establish and preserve unity through relationships. The child imagines that if he competes with the father over the mother, the father being the stronger will deprive the child of his penis. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i. Freud stated that in healthy individuals the ego is doing a good job in balancing out the needs of these two parts of the psyche, however in those where one of the other parts is dominant the individual struggles and problems develop in the personality.