If a driver, that is, a charioteer, or any other person, should attempt to violate this law, or should oppress the victim of their pernicious arts with secret punishments, he shall not escape the death penalty, as he is subject to suspicion for two reasons; first, because he either prevented him from being publicly dealt with, lest he might reveal his accomplices in the crime, and escape the severity of the laws and the torture to which he was liable; or, because he may have formed an atrocious design to kill his own enemy under the pretext of vengeance. This system based on the Corpus Juris Civilis enabled Frederick to strengthen his control over his empire and to make up for the loss of the claim to divine right to rule which had been suffered by previous Holy Roman Emperors during controversy with the papacy. Given on the fourth of the Kalends of June, during the Consulate of Constantine, Consul for the seventh time, and the Caesar Constantius, 326. The Same Emperor to Avidianus. It was a massive digest with a selection of centuries of Roman legislation. The apse mosaic was created in early Byzantine and the dome mosaic was created in middle Byzantine.
Published on the fifteenth of the Kalends of March, during the Consulate of Antoninus, Consul for the fourth time, and Balbinus, 214. However, no English translation of the entire Corpus Juris Civilis existed until 1932 when published his version The Civil Law. One important decision was making Justinian's Code, a long set of laws for the Byzantine Empire. It also had a pan-European scope as it intended to be applicable to the countries which were formed in Europe with the Napoleonic Wars. One and all judges are hereby notified that, in the prosecution of public crimes, they ought not to make use of decrees pronounced in other cases, or place implicit reliance upon statements drawn up by public officials, but should endeavor to ascertain the truth in each particular case. We decree that ravishers of virgins, who are of honorable rank or freeborn, whether they have been betrothed or not, or of widows of any description, whether they are freedwomen or the slaves of others, shall be punished with death, as being guilty of the worst of crimes; especially when they are widows or virgins consecrated to God, for not only in this case is an injury committed against humanity, but against the reverence due to Almighty God himself; since the virginity or chastity which has been destroyed cannot be restored. These penalties shall be inflicted upon him who handles the bodies of persons who have been buried, or the remains of the same.
The Emperor Gordian to Aquila. The Emperors Honorius and Theodosius to the Consuls, Praetors, Tribunes of the People, and Senate, Greeting: We order that the provisions heretofore enacted in the laws with reference to accusations shall be observed, so that whoever is charged with a capital crime shall not immediately be considered guilty, merely because he has been accused, in order that innocence may not be unjustly punished; but that the accuser shall appear in court, give the name of the defendant, make the accusation in writing, and become, as it were, a prisoner proper consideration being had to his rank , to prevent him from making false statements with impunity, as the same punishment should be inflicted upon one bringing a false accusation as the latter intended should be imposed upon the innocent party. And the beginning of the same shall arise at the time when the accusation is contested before a competent judge; and, after the crime has been proved, the person who committed the forgery shall be put to death, if the enormity of the offence demands it; or he shall be sentenced to deportation. Without date or designation of Consulate. Given on the eighth of the Ides of January, during the Consulate of Olybrius and Probinus, 395. Given on the eighth of July, during the Consulate of the Noble Prince Valentinian and Victor, 369.
If he should fail to do this, We order that he shall pay twenty pounds of gold to Our Treasury, and We decree that a negligent judge, or one who has only manifested weakness and is unfitted for the office which he has obtained, shall be fined ten pounds of gold. An adulterer cannot be accused after the lapse of five years from the time when the offence is said to have been committed, and these must be reckoned continuously, for the guilty party must not be deprived of the benefit of the prescription allowed by the laws. For example, it is provided that all persons present at a pagan sacrifice may be indicted as if for murder. The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire was another name for the surviving eastern half of the Roman Empire. It was a code of laws that served as the foundation of international law that is still used today.
The Same Emperor to Maximus. In case the accusers are absent, and have not failed to be present in court through contumacy, and the Governor of the province, having been applied to by the party accused, has, without hearing the case, rendered a decision that he against whom you have complained shall be discharged, the criminal accusation will still continue to exist, as it was not dismissed through the contumacy or neglect of the accusers; and the said criminal case shall be heard by the same judge or his successor, in the ordinary way. The Emperor Gordian to Rufus. We order that no one shall be produced in court unless the judge has directed that this shall be done. Published on the third of the Kalends of March, during the Consulate of Sabinus, Consul for the second time, and Venustus, 241. Published at Rome, on the day before the Nones of October, during the Consulate of Constantine, Consul for the fifth time, and the Caesar Licinius, 319. Although the crime of adultery is included among public offences, the accusation of which is granted to all persons without distinction, still, in order that those who inconsiderately wish to cause discord in households may not be allowed to do so, it is hereby decreed that only the nearest relatives of the guilty party shall have the power to bring the accusation; that is to say, the father, the brother, and the paternal and maternal uncles, whom genuine grief may impel to prosecute.
Published on the Nones of May, during the Consulate of Aemilianus and Bassus, 260. When the accuser is absent, or the presence of the accomplices of the accused is considered necessary, they should be found as soon as possible. Given at Milan, on the day before the Kalends of June, during the Consulate of Stilicho and Aurelian, 400. Given at Constantinople, on the day before the Nones of December, during the Consulate of Theodosius, Consul for the third time, and Abundantius, 393. Let all curiosity relating to divination be at an end, for anyone who hereafter refuses obedience to Our orders shall be put to death, and laid low with the avenging sword. The sentence pronounced by the Attorney for the Crown, if he did not at the time occupy the place of the Governor, who has power to act under the Fabian Law, is void; as the administration of this law comes solely within the jurisdiction of the Governor of the province.
Not one to take a back seat to her husband, Theodora proposed laws that protected the rights of women in the empire. The Same Emperor to Sebastian. A New Annotated Translation, with Parallel Latin and Greek Text, Cambridge University Press, p. But as you state that you have also been beaten by the said slave Fiscinulus, you can proceed against his master also if you think that he should be prosecuted for private violence under the Lex Julia before the Governor, who will not be ignorant in what way punishment should be inflicted, if the crime should be proved. Justinian was a Roman emperor and his empire was the Roman empire.
The resultant 10-book Codex Constitutionum was in 529, all imperial ordinances not included in it being repealed. The Same Emperor to Syrus. Therefore, although you cannot institute criminal proceedings by an attorney, still you will not be prevented from bringing a civil action impeaching the genuineness of the will, as the accused cannot only legally be sued by another, but can also be criminally prosecuted by him who brings the civil action. Published on the third of the Kalends of July, during the Consulate of Fuscus and Bassus, 240. The Same Emperor to the People. Thus the Divine Severus and Antoninus decided that, from the instant when a man became guilty of an offence of this kind, he could neither alienate property nor manumit anyone, and that no one could legally pay him a debt.
Where the defendant or the accuser dies. She was the daughter of the bear keeper, a public performer,wife of Justinian, Empress of the Byzantine Empire and a natural beauty whose name became the one name in the voluminous annals of the Byzantine empire known to almost everyone; Theodora. The term Justinian Code was coined in the Renaissance. Published on the seventeenth of the Kalends of August, during the Consulate of Pius and Pontianus, 239. Published on the third of the Ides of September, during the Consulate of Gordian, Consul for the second time, and Pompeianus, 242.